Cervical Smear (or Pap smear) is a screening test used in gynecology to detect premalignant and malignant (cancerous) processes in the ectocervix. Significant changes can be treated, thus preventing cervical cancer.
Cervical cancer have rarely, if ever, been screened. These women may not obtain pelvic examinations partly because of the cost. The use of liquid-based cytologic screening adds upfront costs, and, therefore, could lead to a paradoxical increase in mortality from this disease if this cost prevented more women from being screened. For example, most women in the United States who die from cervical cancer have rarely, if ever, been screened.
Dilation (or dilatation) and curettage (D&C) refers to the dilation (widening/opening) of the cervix and surgical removal of part of the lining of the uterus and/or contents of the uterus by scraping and scooping (curettage). It is a therapeutic gynecological procedure as well as a rarely used method of first trimester abortion.D&C normally is referred to a procedure involving a curette, also called sharp curettage. However, some sources use the term D&C to refer more generally to any procedure that involves the processes of dilation and removal of uterine contents.
Vaginal and vulval warts are usually caused by a viral infection that can be spread through sexual intercourse. Patients who require vaginal and vulval wart removal surgery should encourage their sexual partner(s) to check for warts as well or risk being re-infected. Warts that are left untreated tend to grow bigger and can become painful.
During vaginal and vulval wart removal surgery, patients usually receive general anesthesia. The gynecologist uses an electric current to carefully burn away the warts.
Vaginoplasty is a cosmetic procedure that tightens the vaginal muscles and surrounding tissues. The surgery is popular amongst women who who feel that their vagina has become looser following childbirth, or through the aging process. This lack of tightness in the vagina can result in reduced sensation during sexual intercourse.
A hysteroscope, is a thin tube with a built in camera that is inserted through the cervix into the uterus. A gynaecologist uses a hysteroscope for diagnosing and treating problems that cause infertility, miscarriages, and abnormal menstrual bleeding.
The procedure is normally done as an outpatient procedure.
A hysterectomy is an operation to remove a woman's womb (uterus). It is estimated that, by the age of 55, one in five women will have had their womb removed. The hysterectomy operation is used to treat problems such as heavy periods, fibroids, prolapse of the uterus, endometriosis and cancer of the uterus, cervix or ovaries.
The most common type of hysterectomy is a complete or total hysterectomy where the cervix is removed as well as the uterus.
A partial hysterectomy removes the upper part of the uterus and leaves the cervix in place. A radical hysterectomy removes the uterus, part of the vagina, and the fallopian tubes.
Hysterectomies are carried out through a cut in the abdomen (abdominal hysterectomy) or the vagina (vaginal hysterectomy). Abdominal hysterectomies are more common than vaginal hysterectomies and usually require a longer recovery.