In some babies, right from birth, a fluid filled sac (‘cyst’) may be found in the ear or skull bone, this is known as cholesteatoma. It can occur because of infection of the ear (‘otits media’). They may be unable to hear, may be dizzy and a foul smelling discharge (‘suppurative’) may leak from the ear. Surgery is performed to remove this cyst.
A stapedectomy is a surgical procedure of the middle ear performed to improve hearing.
In both of these situations, it is possible to improve hearing by removing the stapes bone and replacing it with a micro prosthesis - a stapedectomy, or creating a small hole in the fixed stapes footplace and inserting a tiny, piston-like prosthesis - a stapedotomy. The results of this surgery are generally most reliable in patients whose stapes has lost mobility because of otosclerosis.
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a surgical modality for some diseases of the nose and paranasal sinuses. It is the mainstay in the surgical treatment of sinusitis and nasal polyposis, including fungal sinusitis.FESS is a relatively recent surgical procedure that uses nasal endoscopes (using Hopkins rod lens telescopes) to minimize cutting and trauma to the skin. They provide good illumination of the inside of the head and can be introduced into the nose after anesthetising.FESS came into existence because of pioneering work of Messerklinger and Stamberger (Graz, Austria.).
LAUP is performed under local or general anaesthetic and is considered to be a safer, more economical and a more comfortable alternative to UPPP.
It involves vaporising the free edge of the soft palate and uvula using a laser. Unlike UPPP, LAUP can be repeated in order to obtain the desired effect. The number of procedures needed varies with some patients requiring up to four sessions. The tonsils are not removed with this procedure. Although laser surgery is associated with fewer complications than UPPP, post-operative pain is still reported as being severe.
Tonsillectomy is a common operation in childhood. Enlarged tonsils may cause chronic or recurrent sore throat, and upper airway obstruction causing difficulty with swallowing. Tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure performed to remove the tonsils.